Now in a new edition that brings the saga of the modern world to the present in an environmental context, the book considers how and why the United States emerged as a world power in the twentieth century and became the sole superpower by the twenty-first century, and why the changed relationship of humans to the environmental likely will be the hallmark of the modern era - the Anthopocene.
Now in a new edition, this clearly written and engrossing book presents a global and environmental narrative of the origins of the modern world since 1400. Robert Marks constructs a story in which Asia, Africa, and the New World play major roles and points to the resurgence of Asia and the vastly changed relationship of humans to the environment.
Table of Contents
List of Figures and Maps Preface and Acknowledgments Introduction: The Rise of the West? The Rise of the West "The Gap" and Its Explanations Eurocentrism Stories and Historical Narratives The Elements of an Environmentally Grounded Non-Eurocentric Narrative Notes Chapter One: The Material and Trading World, circa 1400 The Biological Old Regime The Weight of Numbers Climate Change Population Density and Civilization The Agricultural Revolution Towns and Cities in 1400 Nomadic Pastoralists Wildlife Population Growth and Land Famine The Nitrogen Cycle and World History Epidemic Disease The World and Its Trading System circa 1400 The Black Death: A Mid-Fourteenth-Century Conjuncture Conclusion: The Biological Old Regime Notes Chapter Two: Starting with China China The Voyages of Zheng He, 1405-1433 India and the Indian Ocean Dar al-Islam, "The Abode of Islam" Africa Slavery Europe and the Gunpowder Epic Armed Trading on the Mediterranean Portuguese Explorations of the Atlantic Armed Trading in the Indian Ocean Conclusion Notes Chapter Three: Empires, States, and the New World, 1500-1775 Empire Builders and Conquerors Russia and China Mughal, Safavid, and Ottoman Expansion The Dynamics of Empire The Americas The Aztecs The Inca The Conquest of the Americas and the Spanish Empire The Columbian Exchange The Great Dying Labor Supply Problems Silver The Spanish Empire and Its Collapse China's Demand for Silver The New World Economy Human Migration and the Early Modern World The Global Crisis of the Seventeenth Century and the European State System State Building Mercantilism The Seven Years' War, 1756-1763 Notes Chapter Four: The Industrial Revolution and Its Consequences, 1750-1850 Cotton Textiles India The New World as a Peculiar Periphery New Sources of Energy and Power China Markets Exhausting the Earth England, Redux Coal, Iron, and Steam Recap: Without Colonies, Coal, or State Support Science and Technology Tea, Silver, Opium, Iron, and Steam Tea Silver Opium Iron and Steam Conclusion: Into the Anthropocene Notes Chapter Five: The Gap The Gap Opium and Global Capitalism India Industrialization Elsewhere France The United States Germany Russia Japan New Dynamics in the Industrial World The Environmental Consequences of Industrialization Sources of Global Warming Gases in the Nineteenth Century The Social Consequences of Industrialization Factories and Work Women and Families Resistance and Revolution Industrialization and Migration Nations and Nationalism The Scrambles for Africa and China Africa China El Nino Famines and the Making of the Third World Social Darwinism and Self-Congratulatory Eurocentrism Conclusion Notes Chapter Six: The Great Departure Introduction to the Twentieth Century and Beyond Part I: Nitrogen, Wars, and the First Deglobalization, 1900-1945 World War I and the Beginning of the Thirty-Year Crisis (1914-1945) Revolutions Colonial Independence Movements Normalcy? The Great Depression of the 1930s World War II Part II: The Post-War and Cold War Worlds, 1945-1991 Decolonization Asian Revolutions Development and Underdevelopment Consumerism versus Productionism Consumerism Third World Developmentalism Migration, Refugees, and States Global Inequality Inequality within Rich Countries Part III: Globalization and Its Opponents, 1991-Present The End of the Cold War The End of History? A Clash of Civilizations? Global Free Trade Energy, Oil, and War Deterritorialization Does History Repeat Itself? Part IV: The Great Departure: Into the Anthropocene Conclusion Notes Conclusion: Changes, Continuities, and the Shape of the Future The Story Summarized Globalization Into the Future Notes