Provides authoritative coverage of the latest advances in critical care procedures for patients with renal diseases or disorders. Prev. ed.: 2008.
Comprehensive and clinically relevant, the 3rd Edition of Critical Care Nephrology provides authoritative coverage of the latest advances in critical care procedures for patients with renal diseases or disorders. Using common guidelines and standardized approaches to critically ill patients, this multidisciplinary reference facilitates better communication among all physicians who care for critically ill patients suffering from kidney disease, electrolyte and metabolic imbalances, poisoning, severe sepsis, major organ dysfunction, and other pathological events. Offers detailed discussions of different forms of organ support, artificial organs, infections, acute illness occurring in chronic hemodialysis patients, and much more. Places a special emphasis on therapeutic interventions and treatment procedures for a hands on clinical reference tool. Presents information clearly, in a format designed for easy reference - from basic sciences to clinical syndromes to diagnostic tools. Covers special populations such as children, diabetic patients, and the elderly. An exceptional resource for nephrologists, intensivists, surgeons, or critical care physicians - anyone who treats critically ill renal patients. Shares a combined commitment to excellence lead by Drs. Claudio Ronco, Rinaldo Bellomo, John Kellum, and Zaccaria Ricci - unparalleled leaders in this field. Addresses key topics with expanded coverage of acute kidney injury, stress biomarkers, and sepsis, including the latest developments on mechanisms and management. Provides up-to-date information on extracorporeal therapies from new editor Dr. Zaccaria Ricci. Expert ConsultT eBook version included with purchase. This enhanced eBook experience allows you to search all of the text, figures, and references from the book on a variety of devices.
Table of Contents
Section 1: Principles of Critical Care 1. The Critically ill patient 2. The Pathophysiological Foundations of critical care 3. Pulmonary support in the critically ill 4. Hemodynamic support in the critically ill patient 5. Monitoring of organ function in critical care 6. Kidney-Specific Severity Scores Section 2: Principles of Renal Physiology 7. Practical Considerations of Renal Biopsies in Critical Care Patients 8. Tubular physiology 9. Glomerular Filtration Rate, Renal Functional Reserve and Kidney Stress Testing 10. Renal energy consumption and metabolism Section 3: Epidemiology of AKI in critical care 11. Acute Kidney Injury: from clinical to molecular diagnosis 12. Community and hospital acquired Acute Kidney Injury 13. Epidemiology of Acute Kidney Injury in critically ill patients 14. AKI in patients with CKD Section 4: Exposures and patient susceptibility 15. Genetic predisposition to AKI 16. Risks Factors and Risk Assessment in Acute Kidney Injury 17. Experimental Models of Acute Kidney Injury Section 5: Humoral and cellular mechanisms of kidney damage 18. Renal blood flow and perfusion pressure 19. Humoral mediators in sepsis 20. Cell Death Pathways: Apoptosis and Regulated Necrosis 21. Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs), Damage Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs), and their receptors in Acute Kidney Injury Section 6: Clinical course of AKI and Biomarkers 22. AKI continuum: the conceptual model of AKD 23. Acute Kidney Disease, Renal Recovery and Post AKI Care 24. The role of biomarkers in AKI diagnosis and management 25. Functional biomarkers 26. Damage biomarkers 27. Stress biomarkers Section 7: Mechanisms of repair or progression 28. The process of repair after AKI 29. Maladaptive repair and progression to CKD 30. Biomarkers of recovery and/or repair following Acute Kidney Injury Section 8: SECTION 8: Renal Histopathology in AKI 31. Renal Biopsy in AKI 32. Localization of injury and repair pathways Section 9: Imaging techniques in Critical Care Nephrology 33. Ultrasonography and Doppler techniques 34. Contrast enhanced renal ultrasound 35. TRADITIONAL RADIOLOGY, COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY AND MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING IN CRITICAL CARE NEPHROLOGY 36. Radionuclide diagnostic techniques Section 10: Clinical Syndromes and AKI 37. Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome 38. AKI in Burns and Trauma 39. Drug-Induced Acute Kidney Injury 40. Acute Kidney Injury in PregnancyAcute 41. AKI in oncology and tumour lysis syndrome 42. AKI in cardiac surgery 43. AKI in major surgery 44. Acute Kidney Injury in Heart Failure 45. Aki in CIRRHOSIS 46. AKI in kidney transplantation 47. Acute glomerulonephritis 48. Contrast-induced Acute Kidney Injury 49. Abnominal compartment syndrome 50. HEMOLYTIC UREMIC SYNDROME Section 11:Prevention and Treatment: General Treatment Concepts 51. Non-pharmacological prevention of AKI 52. Novel Drugs for AKI 53. Remote Ischemic Preconditioning Section 12: Fluid and Electrolytes 54. Blood Biochemistry: Measuring Major Plasma Electrolytes 55. Assessment of Urine biochemistry 56. Disorders of Sodium and Water Balance 57. Disorders of Potassium and Magnesium 58. Calcium and Phosphate Physiology 59. Principles of Fluid Therapy 60. Blood and Blood Products 61. Loop and thiazide Diuretics 62. Vaptans and the treatment of hyponatremia 63. Aldosterone antagonists and other potassium sparing diuretics Section 13: Acid-Base 64. Laboratory tests: blood gases, anion gap, stron ion gap 65. Acid Base physiology and diagnosis of disorders 66. Metabolic Acidosis 67. Hyperlactatemia and lactic acidosis 68. Renal Tubular Acidosis(RTA) 69. Metabolic alkalosis 70. Respiratory acid-base disorders 71. Iatrogenic and poison-derived acid base disorders Section 14:Metabolism and nutrition in critical illness and AKI 72. Energy requirement and consumption in the Critically Ill Patient 73. Metabolic aspects of RRT 74. Aminoacid turnover, Protein metabolism and Nitrogen balance in Acute Kidney Injury 75. Carbohydrates and Lipids 76. Endocrinology of stress response to critical illness 77. Anemia of critical illness 78. Management of Nutrition in AKI and RRT 79. Blood Glucose Control in Critical Care 80. Enteral Nutrition Section 15: Infectious diseases and Sepsis 81. Microbiological Considerations in the Intensive Care Patient 82. Innate Immunity and the Kidney 83. Adaptive immunity and Critical Illness 84. Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis and Hepatorenal Syndrome 85. Tropical Infections Causing Acute Kidney Injury 86. The Sepsis Syndrome and septic shock 87. Complement and its Consequences in Sepsis 88. Coagulation abnormalities in sepsis 89. Endothelial dysfunction in sepsis 90. The kidney in sepsis and Mechanisms of AKI 91. Recommendation for sepsis management 92. Antibiotic Prescription in ICU and AKI 93. Renal Replacement Therapy in Septic AKI 94. Blood purification therapies for sepsis 95. Management of infection in patients with kidney transplant 96. Viral infections in the ICU 97. Management of antibiotic-resistant infections Section 16: Acute Intoxication and Poisoning 98. Characteristics, Pathophysiology, and Effects of Common Toxic Substances 99. Drugs and Antidotes in Acute Intoxication and Laboratory Testing in Toxicology 100. Extracorporeal therapies in Acute Intoxication and Poisoning 101. Plasmapheresis in Acute Intoxication and Poisoning 102. Poisoning: Kinetics to Therapeutics Section 17:AKI and Organ crosstalk 103. Bleeding and hemostasis in AKI 104. Gastrointestinal Complications of Acute Kidney Injury 105. Cardiovascular problems in AKI 106. Water and electrolyte disorders in AKI 107. Neurological problems in AKI 108. Immunological and infectious complications of AKI 109. Cellular response to AKI Section 18:The heart and the kidney 110. Heart kidney crosstalk 111. Cardiorenal Syndrome Classification 112. Cardiorenal Syndrome type 1 113. Cardiorenal Syndrome type 2 114. Cardiorenal Syndrome type 3 115. Cardiorenal Syndrome type 4 116. Renal Function during Cardiac Mechanical Support and the Artificial Heart 117. The kidney in diastolic dysfunction 118. Principles of Volume Management in Congestive Hear Failure and Cardiorenal Syndrome 119. Management of overhydration in heart failure patients 120. Recent advances for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation and advanced kidney disease Section 19: The lung and the kidney 121. Lung-kidney crosstalk 122. The Kidney during Mechanical Ventilation 123. ECMO and renal function 124. Extracorporeal CO2 removal 125. ECMO and CRRT in adult and children 126. Pulmonary Renal Syndromes Section 20:The Liver and the Kidney 127. Liver-Kidney Interaction 128. Pathophysiology & management of the Hepatorenal Syndrome 129. Kidney Dysfunction after Liver Transplantation 130. Extracorporeal Liver Support and the Kidney Section 21: The Brain and the Kidney 131. Treatment of Combined AKI and Cerebral Edema 132. Renal Protection in the Organ Donor 133. Effect of Extracorporeal Therapies on the Brain Section 22: Fluid balance and its management in the critically ill 134. Components of fluid balance and monitoring 135. Methods of estimation of fluid status 136. The five B approach to fluid management 137. Mechanical fluid removal Section 23: General principles of Acute renal replacement therapy 138. Indications for Renal Replacement Therapy in the Critically Ill 139. Principles of Extracorporeal Circulation and mass separation 140. Membranes and Filters for Use in Acute Renal Failure 141. Evolution of Machines for Acute Renal Replacement Therapy 142. Principles of Anticoagulation in Extracorporeal Circuits 143. Dialysis solutions and replacement fluids 144. Starting and Stopping Renal Replacement Therapy in the Critically Ill 145. The Concept of Renal Replacement Therapy Dose and Efficiency 146. Quantification of Acute Renal Replacement Therapy 147. Principles of Pharmacodynamics and Pharmacokinetics of Drugs Used in Extracorporeal Therapies 148. Ethical Considerations in Acute Renal Replacement Therapy Section 24: Intermittent renal replacement therapies (IRRT) 149. Intermittent Techniques for Acute Dialysis 150. Solute and water transport in hemodialyzers, flow distribution and crossfiltration 151. Biocompatibility of the Dialysis System 152. Composition of Hemodialysis Fluids 153. Indications for and Contraindications to Intermittent Hemodialysis in Critically Ill Patients 154. Technical and Clinical Complications of Intermittent Hemodialysis in the Intensive Care Unit 155. Correction of Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Derangements by Hemodialysis and Derived Techniques 156. Urea Kinetics, Efficiency, and Adequacy of Hemodialysis and Other Intermittent Treatments 157. Assessment of Fluid Status and Body Composition and Control of Fluid Balance with Intermittent Hemodialysis in the Critically Ill Patient 158. Outcome of Intermittent Dialysis in Critically Ill Patients with Acute Renal Failure 159. Hybrid Dialysis Techniques in the Intensive Care Unit 160. Plasma exchange in acute illness 161. Cascade filtration for ABO incompatible transplant 162. Nursing Issues and Procedures in acute dialysis Section 25: Continuous Renal replacement therapies (CRRT) 163. Indications for CRRT: renal replacement versus renal support 164. Beginning and Ending CRRT in the Intensive Care Unit 165. Solute and Water Kinetics in Continuous Therapies 166. CRRT: modalities and their selection 167. Vascular access for renal replacement therapy in AKI patients 168. Anticoagulation Strategies for CRRT and citrate 169. Nursing Strategies to Prevent Coagulation in CRRT 170. Adequacy of CRRT: Precription and delivery 171. High-Volume Hemofiltration in the Intensive Care Unit 172. Pulse High-Volume Hemofiltration in Management of Critically Ill Patients with Sepsis or Septic Shock 173. High cut off membranes for mediators removal 174. Clinical Effects of Continuous Renal Replacement Therapies 175. Antibiotic adjustment in CRRT 176. Nomenclature: Basic principles 177. Nomenclature: Techniques Section 26: Peritoneal Dialysis in critical illness 178. Peritoneal Dialysis in the Intensive Care Unit 179. Indications, Contraindications, and Complications of Peritoneal Dialysis in Acute Renal Failure 180. Solute and Water Transport across the Peritoneal Membrane 181. Choice of Peritoneal Dialysis Technique: Intermittent or Continuous 182. Correction of Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Derangements by Peritoneal Dialysis in Acute Kidney Injury 183. Efficiency and Adequacy of Peritoneal Dialysis in Acute Renal Failure 184. Clinical Results and Complications of Peritoneal Dialysis in Acute Renal Failure 185. Treatment of Peritonitis and Other Clinical Complications of Peritoneal Dialysis in the Critically Ill Patient 186. Comparison of Peritoneal Dialysis with Other Treatments for Acute Renal Failure 187. Techniques and technology of Continuous-Flow Peritoneal Dialysis as Acute Therapy 188. Nursing Issues and Procedures in Acute Peritoneal Dialysis Section 27: Extracorporeal Blood Purification Techniques beyond Dialysis 189. Plasmapheresis 190. Sorbents and Hemoperfusion techniques 191. Therapeutic apheresis in critically ill patients: indicatins, modalities and techniques, clinical results. 192. MARS and extracorporeal liver support 193. Coupled Plasmafiltration-Adsorption 194. The Prometheus System 195. Toraymyxin and Other Endotoxin Adsorption Systems 196. The Plasmafiltration-Adsorption-Dialysis System 197. Extracorporeal membrane oxigenation for cardiac support 198. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for pulmonary support 199. Cell Based Therapies Section 28: Critical Care Nephrology in Pediatrics 200. Pathophysiology of Pediatric Acute Kidney Injury 201. Epidemiology of Pediatric Acute Kidney Injury 202. Treatment of Acute Kidney Injury in Children: Conservative Management to Renal Replacement Therapy 203. Technical Aspects of Pediatric Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy 204. Multiple Organ Dysfunction in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit 205. Drug Dosing in Pediatric Acute Kidney Insufficiency and Renal Replacement Therapy 206. Nutrition of Critically Ill Children with Acute Renal Failure 207. Continuous Renal Replacement Therapies in Combination with Other Extracorporeal Therapies 208. Outcome of Pediatric Acute Kidney Injury 209. Renal Replacement Therapy for the Critically Ill Infant 210. Inborn Errors of Metabolism and Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy 211. Modified Ultrafiltration in Pediatric Heart Surgery 212. Techniques and machines for Pediatric RRT 213. Antibiotics in critically ill newborns and children: nephrotoxicity and management during RRT Section 29: Kidney Transplantation 214. Patient Selection and Pretransplantation Care for Kidney Transplant Recipients 215. Kidney Support and Perioperative Care in Kidney Transplantation 216. AKI in Kidney Transplant Recipients Section 30: Special Kidney Problems in the Intensive Care Unit 217. Management of CKD and ESKD patients in the ICU 218. Management of AKI in Patients with Diabetes in the Intensive Care Unit 219. Diagnosis and Management of AKI in the Emergency Room 220. Anticancer Drugs and the Kidney 221. Anti-inflammatory Drugs and the Kidney 222. Calcineurin Inhibitors and Other Immunosuppressive Drugs and the Kidney 223. Alternative Medicine and Chinese Herbs and the Kidney 224. Environment, Smoking, Obesity, and the Kidney 225. Lead and Heavy Metals and the Kidney 226. Statins and the Kidney 227. Erythropoietin Therapy in Critically Ill Patients and AKI 228. Vasoactive Drugs and Renal Function 229. End points for clinical trials in AKI 230. Hypothermia and the kidney 231. ACEI and AKI