Mega-events represent an important moment in the life of a city, providing a useful lens through which we may analyse their cultural, social, political and economic development. In the wake of the International Olympic Committee’s (IOC’s) concerns about ’gigantism’ and wider public concerns about rising costs, it was imperative in the C21st to demonstrate the long term benefits that arose for the city and nations from hosting premier sporting events. ’London 2012’ was the first to integrate the concept of legacy from the moment a bid to host the Olympic and Paralympic Games was being considered. London proposed an ambitious programme of urban renewal for East London. Subsequent host city bids have adopted the ’legacy narrative’ and, as this book demonstrates, aligned this to major schemes of urban development and renewal. Bringing together scholars, practitioners and policy makers, this book focuses upon the legacies sought by cities that host major sports events. It analyses how governments, the IOC and others define and measure ’legacy’. It also focuses upon the challenges and opportunities facing future host cities of mega-events, looking at their aspirations and the intended impact upon their domestic and international development. It questions what the global shift in geographical location of mega-events means for sports development and the business of sport, what the attractions are for cities seeking to harness the hosting of a mega-event, and whether there may be longer term consequences for the bidding and hosting major sporting events in the wake of the widespread social unrest that accompanied the preparations in Brazil for hosting the FIFA World Cup (2014) and the summer Olympics (2016) and in Turkey, where there was significant opposition to bid for the 2020 summer Olympiad.
Table of Contents
Contents: Introduction: cities and sports mega-events, Gavin Poynter and Valerie Viehoff. Part I Urbanism and Legacy in the 21st Century: Urbanalisation and city mega-events: from 'copy&paste' urbanism to urban creativity, Francesc Munoz; Olympic legacy, Iain MacRury; How do we measure legacy?, Allan J. Brimicombe; The economic power of the Olympic brand and the legacy of London 2012, Alvaro de Miranda. Part II Urbanism: Space, Planning and Place-Making: Urbanism: space, planning and place-making, Gavin Poynter; Urban designs on deprivation: exploring the role of Olympic legacy framework masterplanning in addressing spatial and social divides, Juliet Davis; Legacy from the inside, Ralph Ward; This is East 20? Urban fabrication and the re-making of the Olympic Park: some research issues, Phil Cohen; Legacies of Turin 2006 eight years on: theories on territorialization in the aftermath of the Olympic Games, Egidio Dansero, Alfredo Mela and Cristiana Rossignolo; The politics of mega-event planning in Rio de Janeiro: contesting the Olympic city of exception, Anne-Marie Broudehoux and Fernanda Sanchez. Part III Intangible Legacies: Intangible legacies, Gavin Poynter and Valerie Viehoff; Intangible learning legacies of the Olympic Games: opportunities for host cities, Berta Cerezuela and Chris Kennett; Perceptions of legacy: an educational perspective, Neil Herrington; Legacy as knowledge, Ailton Fernando S. De Oliveira, Celi Nelza Z. Taffarel, Cristiano M. Belem and Lamartine P. DaCosta. Part IV Sustainability and Mega-Event Legacy: Sustainability and mega-event legacy, Ozlem Edizel and Ralph Ward; Creating sustainable urban legacies? Olympic Games legacies in Munich and London, Valerie Viehoff; Sport mega-events as catalysts for sustainable urban development: the case of Athens 2004, Constantinos Cartalis; Atlanta's Centennial Olympic Games - before and after, their lasting impact, Michael Dobbins, Leon S. Eplan and Randal Roark; Mega-events in the South: offside for the poor? FIFA 2010 legacy in Durban, South Africa, Brij Maharaj and Vyasha Harilal. Part V Social Dimensions: Communities and Urban Transformation: Social dimensions: communities and urban transformation, David Powell; The mega-event experience: the Formula 1 Grand Prix in Turkey, Semiha Sultan Eryilmaz and Huseyin Cengiz; The urban impacts of Rio's mega-events: the view from two 'unspectacular' favelas, Matthew Richmond; A 'city of exception'? Rio de Janeiro and the disputed social legacy of the 2014 and 2016 sports mega-events, Einar Braathen, Gilmar Mascarenhas and Celina Myrann Sorboe. Epilogue: the meaning of 'legacy', Michael Rustin; Index.