Intimate and medicalized, natural and technological, reproduction poses some of the most challenging ethical dilemmas of our time. Reproduction presses the boundaries of humanity and ethical respect, the permissible limits of technology, conscientious objection by health care professionals, and social justice. This volume brings together scholars from multiple perspectives to address both traditional and novel questions about the rights and responsibilities of human reproducers, their caregivers, and the societies in which they live.Among issues treated in the volume are what it is to be a parent, the responsibilities of parents, and the role of society in facilitating or discouraging parenting. May gamete donors be anonymous? Is surrogacy in which a woman gestates a child for others ethically permissible when efforts are made to prevent coercion or exploitation? Should it be mandatory to screen newborns for potentially serious conditions, or permissible to sequence their genomes? Are both parties to a reproductive act equally responsible to support the child, even if one deceived the other? Are there ethical asymmetries between male and female parents, and is the lack of available contraceptives for men unjust? Should the costs of infertility treatment be socially shared, as they are for other forms of health care? Do parents have a duty to try to conceive children under the best circumstances they can-or to avoid conception if the child will suffer? What is the status of the fetus and what ethical limits constrain the use of fetal tissue?Reproduction is a rapidly changing medical field, with novel developments such as mitochondrial transfer or uterine transplantation occurring regularly. And there are emerging natural challenges, too, with Zika virus just the latest. The volume gives readers tools not only to address the problems we now know, but ones that may emerge in the future as well.
Table of Contents
IntroductionLeslie FrancisPart 1. SocietyChapter 1. Amy Cabrera Rasmussen. The Discursive Context of Reproductive EthicsChapter 2. Sheelagh McGuinness and Heather Widdows. Access to Reproductive Rights: Global ChallengesChapter 3. Rosamond Rhodes. Constructing the Abortion ArgumentChapter 4. Diana Meyers. Victims of Trafficking, Reproductive Rights, and Asylum.Chapter 5. Donna Dickenson. The Commodification of Women's Reproductive Tissue and ServicesChapter 6. Christopher Gyngell and Michael Selgelid. 21st Century Eugenics.Chapter 7. Kimberly Mutcherson. Procreative Rights in a Post-Coital World.Chapter 8. Anita Silvers & Leslie Francis. Reproduction as a Civil Right.Part 2. ProvidersChapter 9. Armand Antommaria. Conscientious Objection in Reproductive Health.Chapter 10. Judith Daar. The Role of Providers in Assisted Reproduction: Potential Conflicts, Professional Conscience and Personal Choice.Chapter 11. Jeffrey R. Botkin. Ethical Issues in Newborn Screening.Part 3. ParentsChapter 12. Norvin Richards. How We Acquire Parental RightsChapter 13. Sara Goering. Mothers and Others: Relational Autonomy in Parenting.Chapter 14. Don Hubin. Procreators' Duties: Sexual AsymmetriesChapter 15. Margaret P. Battin. Reproductive Control for Men. For Men?Chapter 16. David Orentlicher. Societal Disregard for the Needs of the Infertile.Chapter 17. Leslie Francis. Is Surrogacy Ethically Problematic?Chapter 18. Adam Cureton. Parents with Disabilities.Chapter 19. Imogen Goold. Late-in-life Motherhood: Ethico-Legal Perspectives on the Postponement of Childbearing and Access to Artificial Reproductive Technologies.Chapter 20. David Wasserman. Justice, Procreation, and the Costs of Having and Raising Disabled Children.Chapter 21. Lorna A. Marshall. Ethical Issues in the Evolving Realm of Egg Donation.Chapter 22. I. Glenn Cohen. Sperm and Egg Donor Anonymity: Legal and Ethical Issues.Chapter 23. Hilde Lindemann. Who Am I When I'm Pregnant?Part 4. Last but not Least: Zygote, Blastocyst, Embryo, Fetus, NewbornChapter 24. Adam Kadlac. Contemplating the Start of Someone.Chapter 25. Janet Malek. The Possibility of Being Harmed by One's Own ConceptionChapter 26. Julian Savulescu and Guy Kahane. Understanding Procreative Beneficence.Chapter 27. Bonnie Steinbock. Opting for Twins in IVF: What Does Procreative Responsibility Require?Chapter 28. David DeGrazia. Procreative Responsibility in View of What Parents Owe Their Children.