Within little more than a generation, whale-watching has been subject to global industrial development. It has been portrayed by destinations and business operators, and advocated by environmental groups, as a sustainable activity and an alternative to whaling. However, in recent years the sustainability of these activities has increasingly been questioned, as research shows that repeated disturbance by boat traffic can severely disrupt critical behaviours of cetaceans in the wild. Bringing together contributions by international experts, this volume addresses complex issues associated with commercial whale-watching, sustainable development and conservation of the global marine environment. It highlights widely expressed concerns for the failure of policy, planning and management and pinpoints both long-standing and emerging barriers to sustainable practice. Featuring numerous case studies, the book provides critical insights into the diverse socio-cultural, political, economic and ecological contexts of this global industry, highlighting the challenges and opportunities that arise along the pathways to sustainability.
Table of Contents
List of contributors; Acknowledgements; Introduction; 1. Tourism, cetaceans and sustainable development: moving beyond simple binaries and intuitive assumptions James Higham, Lars Bejder and Rob Williams; Part I. The Historical and Contemporary Contexts: 2. Threats facing cetacean populations: the global context Rob Williams; 3. From adoration to exploitation: the historical and contemporary contexts of human-cetacean interactions Simon J. Allen; 4. Human attitudes and values: tradition versus transformation Peter Corkeron; 5. The whale-watch industry: historical development Erich Hoyt and Chris Parsons; 6. The International Whaling Commission (IWC) and whale-watching Carole Carlson, Naomi Rose, Hidehiro Kato and Rob Williams; Part II. Human Dimensions of Whale-Watching: 7. The whaling versus whale watching debate: the resumption of Icelandic whaling Marianne Helene Rasmussen; 8. Iceland and the resumption of whaling: an empirical study of the attitudes of international tourists and whale-watch tour operators Tommy Andersson, Beatrice Wende and Susanna Gothall; 9. Green messengers or nature's spectacle: understanding visitor experiences of wild cetacean tours Heather Zeppel and Sue Muloin; 10. Whale-watching: an effective education programme is no fluke Genevieve Johnson and Cynde McInnis; 11. What's in it for the whales? Exploring the potential contribution of environmental interpretation to conservation Mark Orams, Paul Forestell and Jonathon Spring; 12. Integrating traditional ecological knowledge and community engagement in marine mammal protected areas Naomi McIntosh, Kepā Maly and John N. Kittinger; Part III. Ecological Dimensions of Whale-Watching: 13. Understanding the ecological effects of whale-watching on cetaceans Fredrik Christiansen and David Lusseau; 14. Whale-watching and behavioural ecology Rochelle Constantine; 15. Energetic linkages between short-term and long-term effects of whale-watching disturbance on cetaceans: an example drawn from northeast Pacific resident killer whales David E. Bain, Rob Williams and Andrew W. Trites; 16. Ecological constraints and the propensity for population consequences of whale-watching disturbances David Lusseau; 17. The use of area-time closures as a tool to manage cetacean-watch tourism Julian Tyne, Neil Loneragen and Lars Bejder; Part IV. Sustainable Management – Insights and Issues: 18. The socioeconomic, educational and legal aspects of whale-watching: a Scottish case study Chris Parsons; 19. Vigilance, resilience and failures of science and management: spinner dolphins and tourism in Hawai'i David W. Johnston; 20. A multi-agent model to simulate whale-watching tours: the case of the St Lawrence Estuary in Quebec, Canada Clément Chion, Jacques-André Landry, Lael Parrott, Danielle Marceau, Philippe Lamontagne, Samuel Turgeon, Robert Michaud, Cristiane C. A. Martins, Nadia Ménard, Guy Cantin and Suzan Dionne; 21. Cetacean-watching in developing countries: a case study from the Mekong River Isabel Beasley, Lars Bejder and Helene Marsh; 22. Whale-watching and community development: the Kaikoura (New Zealand) story David G. Simmons; 23. Management of dusky dolphin tourism at Kaikoura (New Zealand) David Lundquist; 24. Save the whales part 2: a new science advocacy communication framework Wiebke Finkler; 25. Time to rethink: fostering the nascent 'sustainability paradigm' James Higham, Lars Bejder and Rob Williams; Index.