Causal reasoning is one of our most central cognitive competencies, enabling us to adapt to our world. Causal knowledge allows us to predict future events, or diagnose the causes of observed facts. We plan actions and solve problems using knowledge about cause-effect relations. Although causal reasoning is a component of most of our cognitive functions, it has been neglected in cognitive psychology for many decades. The Oxford Handbook of Causal Reasoning offers a state-of-the-art review of the growing field, and its contribution to the world of cognitive science.The Handbook begins with an introduction of competing theories of causal learning and reasoning. In the next section, it presents research about basic cognitive functions involved in causal cognition, such as perception, categorization, argumentation, decision-making, and induction. The following section examines research on domains that embody causal relations, including intuitive physics, legal and moral reasoning, psychopathology, language, social cognition, and the roles of space and time. The final section presents research from neighboring fields that study developmental, phylogenetic, and cultural differences in causal cognition. The chapters, each written by renowned researchers in their field, fill in the gaps of many cognitive psychology textbooks, emphasizing the crucial role of causal structures in our everyday lives. This Handbook is an essential read for students and researchers of the cognitive sciences, including cognitive, developmental, social, comparative, and cross-cultural psychology; philosophy; methodology; statistics; artificial intelligence; and machine learning.
Table of Contents
Contents1. Causal Reasoning: An IntroductionMichael R. WaldmannPart I: Theories of Causal Cognition2. Associative Accounts of Causal CognitionMike E. Le Pelley, Oren Griffiths, and Tom Beesley3. Rules of Causal Judgment: Mapping Statistical Information Onto Causal BeliefsJosé C. Perales, Andrés Catena, Antonio Cándido, and Antonio Maldonado4. The Inferential Reasoning Theory of Causal Learning: Toward a Multi- Process Propositional AccountYannick Boddez, Jan De Houwer, and Tom Beckers5. Causal Invariance as an Essential Constraint for Creating a Causal Representation of the World: Generalizing the Invariance of Causal PowerPatricia W. Cheng and Hongjing Lu6. The Acquisition and Use of Causal Structure KnowledgeBenjamin Margolin Rottman7. Formalizing Prior Knowledge in Causal InductionThomas L. Griffiths8. Causal MechanismsSamuel G. B. Johnson and Woo-kyoung Ahn9. Force Dynamics and CausationPhillip Wolff and Robert Thorstad10. Mental Models and CausationP. N. Johnson- Laird and Sangeet S. Khemlani11. PseudocontingenciesKlaus Fiedler and Florian Kutzner12. Singular CausationDavid Danks13. Cognitive Neuroscience of Causal ReasoningJoachim T. Operskalski and Aron K. BarbeyPart II: Basic Cognitive Functions14. Visual Impressions of CausalityPeter White15. Goal-Directed ActionsBernhard Hommel16. Planning and ControlMagda Osman17. Reinforcement Learning and Causal ModelsSamuel J. Gershman18. Causation and the Probability of Causal ConditionalsDavid E. Over19. Causal Models and Conditional ReasoningMike Oaksford and Nick Chater20. Concepts as Causal Models: CategorizationBob Rehder21. Concepts as Causal Models: InductionBob Rehder22. Causal ExplanationTania Lombrozo and Nadya Vasilyeva23. Diagnostic ReasoningBjörn Meder and Ralf Mayrhofer24. Inferring Causal Relations by AnalogyKeith J. Holyoak and Hee-Seung Lee25. Causal ArgumentUlrike Hahn, Roland Bluhm, and Frank Zenker26. Causality in Decision- MakingYork Hagmayer and Philip M. FernbachPart III: Domains of Causal Reasoning27. Intuitive TheoriesTobias Gerstenberg and Joshua B. Tenenbaum28. Space, Time, and CausalityMarc J. Buehner29. Causation in Legal and Moral ReasoningDavid A. Lagnado and Tobias Gerstenberg30. The Role of Causal Knowledge in Reasoning About Mental DisordersWoo-kyoung Ahn, Nancy S. Kim, and Matthew S. Lebowitz31. Causality and Causal Reasoning in Natural LanguageTorgrim Solstad and Oliver Bott32. Social Attribution and ExplanationDenis HiltonPart IV: Development, Phylogeny, and Culture33. The Development of Causal ReasoningPaul Muentener and Elizabeth Bonawitz34. Causal Reasoning in Non-Human AnimalsChristian Schloegl and Julia Fischer35. Causal Cognition and CultureAndrea Bender, Sieghard Beller, and Douglas L. MedinIndex