The study of how the environment, local geography, and physical locations influence crime has a long history that stretches across many research traditions. These include the neighborhood effects approach developed in the 1920s, the criminology of place, and a newer approach that attends to the perception of crime in communities. Aided by new technologies and improved data-reporting in recent decades, research in environmental criminology has developed rapidly within each of these approaches. Yet research in the subfield remains fragmented and competing theories are rarely examined together.The Oxford Handbook of Environmental Criminology takes a unique approach and synthesizes the contributions of existing methods to better integrate the subfield as a whole. Gerben J.N. Bruinsma and Shane D. Johnson have assembled a cast of top scholars to provide an in-depth source for understanding how and why physical setting can influence the emergence of crime, affect the environment, and impact individual or group behavior. The contributors address how changes in the environment, global connectivity, and technology provide more criminal opportunities and new ways of committing old crimes. They also explore how crimes committed in countries with distinct cultural practices like China and West Africa might lead to different spatial patterns of crime. This is a state-of-the-art compendium on environmental criminology that reflects the diverse research and theory developed across the western world.
Table of Contents
ForewordMichael Tonry1 Environmental Criminology: History, Scope and State of the ArtGerben J.N. Bruinsma and Shane D. JohnsonSECTION I - Reflections on Theoretical Issues2 Social Spatial InfluencesPamela Wilcox and Kristin Swartz3 How Do We Get to Causal Clarity on Physical Environment-Crime Dynamics?Ralph B. Taylor4 The Individual PerspectiveLucia Summers and Rob T. Guerette5 Do We Really Need Collective Social Process to Understand Why Crime Occurs and Offenders Commit Crime?Elizabeth R. Groff6 The Importance of High Offender Neighborhoods within Environmental CriminologyAnthony Bottoms7 Four Images of the Delinquent AreaMarcus Felson8 Evaluating Theories of Environmental Criminology: Strengths and WeaknessesFrancis T. Cullen and Teresa C. KuligSECTION II - Methods of Research in Environmental Criminology9 Deciding on the 'Appropriate' Unit of Analysis: Practical Considerations in Environmental CriminologyBrian Lawton10 GIS and Spatial AnalysisMartin Andresen11 The Role of Innovative Data Collection Methods in Advancing Criminological UnderstandingReka Solymosi and Kate Bowers12 New Steps in Visualization for Research in Environmental CriminologyPatricia L. Brantingham, Paul J. Brantingham, Justin Song, and Valerie Spicer13 Victimization Surveys in Environmental CriminologyAndromachi Tseloni, Nick Tilley, and Graham Farrell14 Systematic ObservationIan Brunton-Smith15 Computer Simulations. Agent-Based Environmental CriminologyDaniel BirksSECTION III -Everyday Urban Crime: Empirical Examples and Reviews of ResearchNeighborhoods and Communities16 Research on Neighborhoods in European CitiesLieven Pauwels, Gerben Bruinsma, Frank Weerman, and Wim Hardyns17 Testing Theories of Social Disorganization in NigeriaFaisal Umar, Ahmadu Bello, Shane D. Johnson, and James A. Cheshire18 Gated Communities and Crime in the United StatesNicholas Branic and Charis E. Kubrin19 Egohoods: Capturing Change in Spatial Crime PatternsJohn R. Hipp and Christopher J. Bates20 Signal Crimes: How the Harms of Crime and Disorder Travel across Social Space-TimeMartin Innes and Helen InnesBuilt Environment21 Built Environment, Land Use and CrimeKathryn Wuschke and J. Bryan Kinney22 Macro Level Generators and Crime (Parks, Stadiums, and Transit Stations)Andrew Newton23 Does Crime Impact Real Estate Prices? An Assessment of Accessibility and LocationVania Ceccato and Mats Wilhelmsson24 Street Networks and CrimeToby Davies and Kate BowersPlaces25 The Criminology of PlacesCody W. Telep and David Weisburd26 Studying Situational Effects of Setting Characteristics: Examples from the Study of Peers, Activities and NeighbourhoodsFrank Weerman, Evelien Hoeben, Wim Bernasco, Lieven Pauwels, and Gerben J.N. Bruinsma27 Place ManagementJohn Eck and Tamara D. Madensen28 Crime Concentrations: Hot Dots, Hot Spots and Hot FlushesDainis Ignatans and Ken PeaseRoutine Activity Convergence29 Time and OpportunityLisa Tompson and Timothy Coupe30 GuardianshipDanielle Reynald31 Mobility and Location Choice of OffendersWim BernascoCrime Prevention32 What have we Learned from Environmental Criminology for the Prevention of Crime?Brandon Welsh and Sema A. TaheriSECTION IV - Special Crimes and Circumstances33 Riots, Space and PlacePeter Baudains and Shane D. Johnson34 Geoprofiling TerrorismKim Rossmo35 Child Sexual Abuse and OpportunityRichard Wortley36 (Juvenile) Gangs and SpaceMatthew Valasik and George Tita37 Organized Crime and PlacesEdward Kleemans38 Cybercrime and Place: Applying Environmental Criminology to Crimes in CyberspaceFernando Miró Llinares and Shane D. Johnson39 Maritime PiracyMichael Townsley