This Handbook provides a compendium of research methods that are essential for studying interaction and communication across the behavioral sciences. Focusing on coding of verbal and nonverbal behavior and interaction, the Handbook is organized into five parts. Part I provides an introduction and historic overview of the field. Part II presents areas in which interaction analysis is used, such as relationship research, group research, and nonverbal research. Part III focuses on development, validation, and concrete application of interaction coding schemes. Part IV presents relevant data analysis methods and statistics. Part V contains systematic descriptions of established and novel coding schemes, which allows quick comparison across instruments. Researchers can apply this methodology to their own interaction data and learn how to evaluate and select coding schemes and conduct interaction analysis. This is an essential reference for all who study communication in teams and groups.
Table of Contents
Part I. Background and Theory: 1. Interaction analysis: an introduction; 2. History of group interaction research; Part II. Application Areas of Interaction Analysis: 3. Dyadic interaction analysis; 4. Observing group interaction: the benefits of taking group dynamics seriously; 5. Unpacking the structures of team interaction patterns; 6. Coding nonverbal behavior; 7. Behavioral coding in animals; 8. Beyond coding interaction: new horizons in interaction analysis; Part III. Methodology and Procedures of Interaction Analysis: 9. Coding interaction: a technical introduction; 10. Rules for coding scheme development; 11. Unitizing verbal interaction data for coding: rules and reliability; 12. Quality control: assessing reliability and validity; 13. Software for coding and analyzing interaction processes; Part IV. Data Analysis and Data Presentation: 14. Coding and counting – frequency analysis for group interaction research; 15. Analysis of interaction sequences; 16. Temporal patterns in interactions: T-patterns and their detection with THEMEtm; 17. Interdependence in small group discussion; 18. Coding and analyzing multiple levels; 19. Introduction to machine learning: teaching computers to code group interaction data; 20. Tint – a technique for visualizing team processes; Part V. Coding Schemes for Interaction Research: General Group Process Systems: 21. The advanced interaction analysis for teams (act4teams) coding scheme; 22. Discussion Coding System (DCS); 23. Interaction Process Analysis (IPA); 24. TEMPO: a time-based system for analysis of group interaction process; Section 1. Argument, Conflict, and Negotiations: 25. Argument – a category system for analyzing argumentation in group discussions; 26. Group working relationships coding system; 27. Micro-conflict coding scheme; 28. Offer: behaviorally coding indirect and direct information exchange in negotiations; 29. Verbal tactics coding scheme (Vtcs); Section 2. Coordination and Coherence: 30. Coco – a category system for coding coherence in conversations; 31. Co-act – a framework for observing coordination behavior in acute care teams; 32. So-Dic-Or: simultaneous observation of distractions and communication in the operating room; Section 3. Cognition and Meta-Cognition: 33. Casorl – coding scheme for the analysis of socially regulated learning; 34. Coding scheme for group creativity; 35. Analyzing critical thinking in group constellations: from discourse analysis to analyzing social modes of thinking; 36. Identifying teacher and student contributions during assessment conversations: the elevate coding scheme; 37. In search of synergy in group decisions: coding hidden profile discussions; 38. Trawis – coding transactive knowledge and knowledge exchange; Section 4. Personality and Team Behavior: 39. The behavior analysis coding system – an applied, real-time approach for measuring and improving interactive skills; 40. Groupness/entitativity observational coding (Geoc): a coding system to assess groupness or entitativity in groups; 41. Assessing group interactions in personality psychology: the Münster behavior coding-system (M-BeCoSy); Section 5. Roles and Relationships: 42. BRRICS: brief romantic relationship interaction coding scheme; 43. (Family) relational communication control coding system; 44. Verbal response modes taxonomy.