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電子書籍詳細


洋書 kinoppy

環境工学のための複合材料

Composites for Environmental Engineering

1

Ahmed, Shakeel (EDT)   Chaudhry , Saif Ali (EDT)

Wiley-Scrivener 2019/10
500p.
出版国: US
ISBN: 9781119555292
eISBN: 9781119555353
KNPID: EY00364244
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Full Description

Composites are materials made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties. The two materials combine together to give a new material with higher strength, toughness, stiffness, but also a higher resistance to creep, corrosion, wear or fatigue compared to conventional materials. It is composed primarily of a matrix i.e. a continuous phase which is armoured with secondary discontinues reinforcement phase. These materials have been used in a variety of products viz. spacecrafts, sporting goods, catalyst, sensors, actuators, biomedical materials, batteries, cars, furniture, aircraft components, etc.

This book focusses on processing, properties of various types of composite materials, as well as their environmental engineering applications. This book examines the current state of art, new challenges, and opportunities of composites in environmental engineering. The chapters in this book covers nearly every topic related to composites in environmental engineering in four broad perspectives:  (i) classification of composites (ii) green/hybrid synthesis and characterization of nano and biocomposites (iii) processing of composite materials (iv) state-of–the-art in fabricating the composites - nano and biocomposites - for environmental applications.

Table of Contents

Preface xvii

1 Composites: Types, Method of Preparation and Application as An Emerging Tool for Environmental Remediation 1
Bushra Fatima, Geetanjali Rathi, Rabia Ahmad and Saif Ali Chaudhry

1.1 Introduction 2

1.2 Classification Based on Matrix 4

1.2.1 Metal Matrix Composites (MMC) 5

1.2.2 Methods for Synthesizing Metal-Matrix Composites 5

1.2.3 Bonding in Metal Matrix Composites 9

1.2.4 Applications of Metal Matrix Composites 10

1.3 Polymer Matrix Composites 10

1.3.1 Classification of Polymer Matrix Composites 12

1.3.2 Methods for Synthesizing of Polymer Composites 13

1.3.3 Bonding in Polymer Matrix Composites 15

1.3.4 Applications of Polymer Matrix Composites 16

1.4 Ceramic Matrix Composites 16

1.4.1 Methods for Synthesizing Ceramic Matrix Composites 17

1.4.2 Advantage of Ceramic Matrix Composites 18

1.4.3 Disadvantages of Ceramic Matrix Composites 18

1.4.4 Applications of Ceramic Matrix Composites 18

1.5 Classification Based on Reinforcement 19

1.5.1 Fiber-Reinforced Composites 19

1.5.2 Particle Reinforced Composites 20

1.5.3 Structural Reinforced Composites 20

1.6 Recent Advancement in Composites 21

1.6.1 Methods for Synthesizing Green Composites 22

1.6.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of Green Composites over Traditional Composites 22

1.6.3 Applications of Green Composites 22

1.7 Advantages of Composites 23

1.8 Disadvantages of Composites 23

1.9 Conclusion 24

1.10 Future Prospects 24

1.11 Acknowledgement 25

References 25

2 Applications of Composites Materials for Environmental Aspects 33
Pintu Pandit, Kunal Singha, Akshay Jadhav, T.N. Gayatri and Utpal Dhara

2.1 Introduction 34

2.2 History of Composites for Eco-Friendly Engineering 35

2.3 Composites for Greenhouses 36

2.4 Polymers have been Reinforced by Fiber (FRP) for Greenhouse 36

2.4.1 Composites Employed in Controlling Humidity in the Home which is Green 36

2.4.2 Composite Films for Optical Transmission of Greenhouse 37

2.5 Composites Employed in Acoustic Applications 37

2.6 Natural Fiber Composites 40

2.6.1 Pretreatment of Natural Fiber 40

2.6.2 Factors Impacting on Bodily Functioning of Natural Fiber Composites 41

2.6.2.1 Fiber Selection 41

2.6.2.2 Matrix Selection 42

2.6.2.3 Interface Strength 42

2.6.2.4 Fiber Orientation 42

2.6.3 Jute-Coir Composites for Constructions 43

2.6.4 Bamboo Composites for Construction 43

2.7 Effective Factors for Low Frequency Acoustic Absorption 44

2.7.1 Fiber Size 44

2.7.2 Feed Size 45

2.7.3 Majority Density 45

2.7.4 Sample Layer Thickness 46

2.8 Composites Employed in Wind Energy 46

2.9 Composites Used in Wind Turbines 47

2.9.1 Impact of Wind Hit on the Composite Material 47

2.10 Composite Materials for the Marine Environment 48

2.11 Composite Materials for Aerospace Engineering 49

2.12 Composites Materials for Civil Engineering 50

2.13 Composite Materials Employed in Solar Energy Panels 50

2.14 Conclusions 51

References 52

3 The Application of Mechano-Chemistry in Composite Preparation 57
S. C. Onwubu, P. S. Mdluli, S. Singh, and M. U. Makgobole

3.1 Introduction 57

3.2 The Science of Mechanochemistry 58

3.3 Brief History of Mechanochemistry Application 59

3.4 Mechanochemical Tools 60

3.5 Applications of Mechanochemistry in the Milling of Eggshell Powder 63

3.6 Conclusions 65

References 66

4 Fiber-Reinforced Composites for Environmental Engineering 69
Gayatri T. Nadathur, Pintu Pandit and Kunal Singha

4.1 Introduction 69

4.2 Strength of FRC Materials 72

4.3 Composite Manufacturing 74

4.4 Environmental Sustainability of Composites 77

4.5 Green Composites 80

4.6 Composite Filtration Membranes/Media 85

4.7 Liquid (Water or Oil) Filtration Media 86

4.8 Air Filtration Media 88

4.9 Filtration/Separation of Oil-Water Liquid Mixtures 88

4.10 FRCs for Noise Reduction 91

4.11 Fire Resistant FRCs 92

4.12 Conclusions 94

References 94

5 Polymer Nanocomposites: Alternative to Reduce Environmental Impact of Non-Biodegradable Food Packaging Materials 99
Shiji Mathew and Radhakrishnan EK

5.1 Introduction 99

5.2 Role of Food Packaging Materials 101

5.3 Environmental Impact of Food Packaging 102

5.4 Polymer Nanocomposites 103

5.5 Biopolymers as Packaging Materials 104

5.6 Advantages of Biopolymers 105

5.7 Reinforcements used in Bionanocomposites 106

5.7.1 Nanoclays-Layered Clays/Silicates 106

5.7.2 Metal and Metal Oxide Nanoparticles 107

5.8 Bionanocomposites 108

5.9 Polysaccharide-Based Bionanocomposites 108

5.9.1 Starch-Based Packaging Material 108

5.10 Protein-Based Bionanocomposites 109

5.10.1 Gelatin Bionanocomposites 110

5.11 Biodegradable Synthetic Polymers 111

5.11.1 Polylactic Acid-Based Packaging Materials 111

5.11.2 Poly (Vinyl) Alcohol-Based Packaging Materials 112

5.12 Properties of Bionanocomposites 113

5.12.1 Mechanical Properties 115

5.12.2 Barrier Properties 115

5.12.3 Thermal Properties 117

5.12.4 Biodegradability 117

5.13 Changes Occurring during Biodegradation Process 119

5.14 Methods of Preparation of Bionanocomposites 120

5.14.1 In Situ Polymerization 120

5.14.2 Melt Intercalation Technique 120

5.14.3 Solvent Casting 121

5.15 Bionanocomposite Characterization 121

5.16 Conclusions 123

References 124

6 Environmental Science and Engineering Applications of Polymer and Nanocellulose-Based Nanocomposites 135
Niranjan Thondavada, Rajasekhar Chokkareddy, Nuthalapati Venkatasubba Naidu and G. G. Redhi

6.1 Introduction 136

6.2 Preparation of Polymer Nanocomposites 137

6.2.1 Direct Compounding 137

6.2.2 In-Situ Synthesis 138

6.3 Environmental Applications of PNCs 141

6.3.1 Catalytic and Redox Degradation of Pollutants 141

6.4 Biocatalytic Nanocomposites 142

6.4.1 Adsorption of Pollutants 151

6.5 Preparation of Nanocellulose 155

6.5.1 Nanocellulose-Based Nanocomposites 158

6.5.2 Antimicrobial Filters 162

6.5.3 Catalysis 162

6.5.4 Energy Applications 164

6.6 Conclusion 166

References 166

7 Nanocomposites of ZnO for Water Remediation 179
Parita Basnet and Somenath Chatterjee

7.1 Introduction 180

7.2 Aqueous Pollutants 182

7.3 Types of ZnO NCs 184

7.3.1 M-ZnO NCs as Photocatalyst 185

7.3.1.1 Metal Doped/Incorporated-ZnO NCs as Photocatalyst 185

7.3.1.2 Metal Deposited-ZnO NCs as Photocatalyst 188

7.3.2 Semiconductor-ZnO (S-ZnO) NCs as Photocatalyst 191

7.3.3 Polymer-ZnO (P-ZnO) NCs as Photocatalyst 193

7.3.4 Mixed Metal, Semiconductor and/or Polymer-ZnO NCs as Photocatalyst 197

7.3.4.1 Bimetallic-ZnO NCs as Photocatalyst 197

7.3.4.2 Metal-Semiconductor-ZnO (M-S-ZnO) NCs as Photocatalyst 199

7.4 Other Applications Related to the Photocatalytic Activities of ZnO NCs 201

7.5 Conclusion 206

7.6 Acknowledgement 222

References 222

8 Degradation of Organic Compounds by the Applications of Metal Nanocomposites 235
Iffat Zareen Ahmad and Mohammed Kuddus

8.1 Introduction 237

8.2 Metal Oxides Used in Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Pollutants in Wastewater 244

8.2.1 Titanium Dioxide 244

8.2.2 Graphene Oxide 248

8.2.3 Zinc Oxide 249

8.2.4 Cesium Oxide 250

8.2.5 Silver Salts 250

8.2.6 Bismuth Compounds 251

8.2.7 Copper Compounds 252

8.2.8 Gold Compounds 254

8.3 Conclusion 255

References 256

9 Nanocomposites in Environmental Engineering 263
Mohammad Nadeem Lone and Irshad A. Wani

9.1 Introduction 264

9.2 Polymeric Nanocomposites 265

9.2.1 PNC’s as Catalysts and Redox Active Media 265

9.2.2 PNC’s for Adsorption and Degradation of Pollutants 285

9.3 Magnetic Polymer Based Nanocomposites 287

9.3.1 Types of Magnetic Nanocomposites 287

9.3.1.1 Type I: Inorganic Core Shell Nanocomposites 287

9.3.1.2 Type II: Self Assembled Colloidal Nanocomposites 288

9.3.1.3 Type III: Organic–Inorganic Nanocomposites 288

9.3.2 Synthesis of Magnetic Nanocomposites (MNC’s) 289

9.3.2.1 Ex-Situ Synthesis 289

9.3.2.2 In-Situ Synthesis 290

9.3.3 Environmental Applications 294

9.3.3.1 Elimination of Heavy Metals 294

9.3.3.2 Elimination of Toxic Dyes and Effluents 297

9.3.3.3 Removal of Oil from Water 298

9.4 Future Perspectives and Conclusion 299

References 300

10 Bio-Composites from Food Wastes 319
Pintu Choudhary, Priyanga Suriyamoorthy, J. A. Moses and C. Anandharamakrishnan

10.1 Introduction 319

10.2 Vegetables Waste 326

10.3 Fruit Waste 329

10.4 Coffee and Tea Waste 332

10.5 Animal-Based Food Waste 333

10.6 Food Grain Waste 337

References 339

11 Properties of Food Packaging Biocomposites and Its Impact on Environment 347
K.S. Yoha, M. Maria Leena, J.A. Moses and C. Anandharamakrishnan

11.1 Introduction 348

11.2 Importance of Food Packaging 350

11.3 Packaging Materials Impact on Environment 351

11.4 Risks of Elemental Migration from Packaging Material 352

11.4.1 Contact Migration 354

11.4.2 Non-Contact Migration 355

11.5 Selection of Food Packaging Material 355

11.6 Biodegradable Polymers 356

11.6.1 Polysaccharides 358

11.6.1.1 Sugar-Based Biopolymers 358

11.6.1.2 Starch-Based Biopolymers 358

11.6.1.3 Cellulose-Based Biopolymers 359

11.6.1.4 Pectin 359

11.6.2 Proteins 360

11.6.2.1 Collagen 360

11.6.2.2 Casein 361

11.6.2.3 Zein 361

11.6.2.4 Gluten 362

11.6.3 Seaweed Polymers 362

11.6.4 Plants Seed Mucilage 366

11.6.5 Micro-Organisms Synthesized Biopolymers 367

11.6.5.1 Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) 367

11.6.5.2 Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) 367

11.6.5.3 Polyhydroxybutyrate-Co-Hydroxyvalerate (PHBV) 368

11.6.6 Bio-Derived Synthetic Polymers 368

11.6.6.1 Poly-Lactic Acid (PLA) 368

11.6.6.2 Poly Glycolic Acid (PGA) 369

11.6.6.3 Poly-Lactic-Co-Glycolic Acid (PLGA) 370

11.7 Bio-Based Polymeric Composite Materials 370

11.7.1 Starch-Based Composites 370

11.7.2 Poly(Hydroxyalkanoate)-Based Composites 371

11.8 Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Composites 371

11.9 Surface Modifications of Biocomposites 372

11.10 Conclusion 373

References 374

12 Environmentally Benign Protocols for the Synthesis of Transition Metal Oxide: A Brief Outlook 383
Neha D. Desai, Kishorkumar V. Khot, Tukaram D. Dongale, Atul Khot and Popatrao N. Bhosale

12.1 Introduction 384

12.2 Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) 385

12.2.1 Introduction 385

12.2.2 Method of Synthesis 387

12.2.3 Experimental of TiO2 Thin Film 389

12.2.4 Results and Discussions 389

12.3 Molybdenum Trioxide (MoO3) 392

12.3.1 Introduction 392

12.3.2 Experimental 394

12.3.3 Growth Mechanism 395

12.3.4 Structural Analysis 396

12.4 Zinc Oxide (ZnO) 398

12.4.1 Introduction 398

12.4.2 Experimental 400

12.4.3 TiO2 Memristor Devices 404

12.4.4 ZnO Memristor Devices 406

References 409

Index 421